Last week I was honored to be guest at Artem Zinnatullin’s podcast The Context where we talked about software architecture on android. In this episode I have highlighted how important a presentation model in MVP is by giving an example how to deal with RecyclerView Adapters dataset changes. Afterwards people asked me how exactly do I apply animated dataset changes and why a presentation model is helpful in this case.

Before we dive into the presentation model part, here are the good news: I have put all those things together and bundled it into a library called AdapterCommands.

So what is this library all about? Well, RecyclerView has this nice component called ItemAnimator which is responsible to animate items of RecyclerView. There is already build in support for animations when using adapter.setHasStableId(true). However, if you don’t have stable id’s then calling notifyDatasetChanged() will not run any animation. For example, let’s say we are displaying a list of items in a RecyclerView. When adding a new item we can call adapter.notifyItemInserted(position) rather than just adapter.notifyDatasetChanged() to specify what exactly has been changed (we have inserted an item). Now ItemAnimator kicks in and animates the item in.

AdapterCommands basically implements the command pattern in which a Command object is used to encapsulate all information needed to perform an action. So instead of calling adapter.notifyItemInserted(position) directly this library provides a ItemInsertedCommand which looks like this:

public class ItemInsertedCommand implements AdapterCommand {

  private final int position;

  public ItemInsertedCommand(int position) {
    this.position = position;

  public void execute(RecyclerView.Adapter<?> adapter) {


As you see this class implements the interface AdapterCommand which has a execute(adapter) method. This library offers such commands for all this actions like ItemRemovedCommand, ItemChangedCommand, ItemRemovedCommand and so on. This library also provides a class AdapterCommandProcessor that takes a **List** and executes each command:

public class AdapterCommandProcessor {

  private final RecyclerView.Adapter<?> adapter;

  public AdapterCommandProcessor(RecyclerView.Adapter<?> adapter) {
    this.adapter = adapter;

  public void execute(List<AdapterCommand> commands) {
    for (int i = 0; i < commands.size(); i++) {

I know, it’s not that impressive at first glance. So what is the advantage of this pattern? Quite often an app displays a list of items in a RecyclerView and the underlying dataset gets changed, for instance in combination with SwipeRefreshLayout the user can reload an updated list of items (i.e. load items from backend). What do we do with the new list? Just call adapter.notifyDatasetChanged() to inform that the new list of items should be displayed? But what about the ItemAnimator? The AdapterCommands library offers DiffCommandsCalculator class. This class calculates the difference of the old list and the new list and returns a **List** that then can be executed by an **AdapterCommandProcessor**. Let's have a look at the demo:

As you see in the demo video above, whenever we click on the add or remove button item changes are animated. The implementation looks like this:

public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity
    implements SwipeRefreshLayout.OnRefreshListener {

  @Bind( RecyclerView recyclerView;

  List<Item> items = new ArrayList<Item>();
  Random random = new Random();
  ItemAdapter adapter; // RecyclerView adapter
  AdapterCommandProcessor commandProcessor;
  DiffCommandsCalculator<Item> commandsCalculator = new DiffCommandsCalculator<Item>();

  @Override protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {


    adapter = new ItemAdapter(this, items);
    recyclerView.setLayoutManager(new GridLayoutManager(this, 4));

    commandProcessor = new AdapterCommandProcessor(adapter);

  @OnClick( public void addClicked() {

    int addCount = random.nextInt(3) + 1;

    for (int i = 0; i < addCount; i++) {
      int position = random.nextInt(items.size());
      Item item = new Item(id(), randomColor());
      items.add(position, item);

  @OnClick( public void removeClicked() {

    int removeCount = random.nextInt(3) + 1;

    for (int i = 0; i < removeCount; i++) {
      int position = random.nextInt(items.size());
      Item item = items.remove(position);

  private void updateAdapter() {
    // calculate the difference to previous items
    List<AdapterCommand> commands = commandsCalculator.diff(items);


Presentation Model

I guess you get the point, but how is this related to the presentation model and MVP? In MVP the Presenter generates (optional) a PresentationModel which is yet another data model optimized for the view containing all the information the view needs to know so that the view can simply take this presentation model and can display it directly without having to calculate things. More information can be found here.

So lets assume we are building an app for a newspaper by applying MVP, Retrofit to load a list of NewsItems and use RxJava to connect the dots. Instead of passing a List<NewsItem> directly from Presenter to View we introduce a NewsItemsPresentationModel that looks like this:

class NewsItemsPresentationModel {
  List<NewsItem> newsItems;
  List<AdapterCommand> adapterComamnds;

With RxJava it’s quite easy to transform the List<NewsItem> to a NewsItemsPresentationModel by defining a Func1 like this:

class PresentationModelTransformer extends Func1< List<NewsItem>, NewsItemsPresentationModel> {

  private DiffCommandsCalculator<NewsItem> diffCalculator = new DiffCommandsCalculator<>();

  public NewsItemsPresentationModel call(List<NewsItem> items){
    List<AdapterCommand> commands = diffCalculator.diff(items);
    return new PresentationModelTransformer(items, commands);

The Presenter looks like this:

class NewsItemsPresenter extends MvpBasePresenter<NewsItemView> {

  private BackendApi backendApi; // Retrofit service to load news items
  private PresentationModelTransformer pmTransformer = new PresentationModelTransformer()

  public void loadItems(){
              .map(pmTransformer) // Creates NewsItemsPresentationModel
              .subscribe(new Subscriber() {
                  public void onNext(NewsItemsPresentationModel pm){
                  public void onError(Throwable t){

As you see with RxJava we can use map() operator to transform the model into a presentation model. Another nice thing to note is that this transformation and the calculation of the difference runs on the background thread (

The View is now very stupid simple and doesn’t contain such complex calculations like where to insert new items from the list and so on. The View gets the NewsItemsPresentationModel from presenter and has everything the View needs to display the new list (with animations):

class NewsItemsActivity extends Activity implements NewsItemView, OnRefreshListener {

  @Bind( RecyclerView recyclerView;  
   NewsItemsPresenter presenter;
   AdapterCommandProcessor commandProcessor;

   protected void onCreate(Bundle b){

     presenter = new NewsItemsPresenter();
     Adapter adapter = new NewsItemsAdapter();
     commandProcessor = new AdapterCommandProcessor(adapter);


   public void onRefresh(){

   public void setNewsItems(NewsItemsPresentationModel pm) {


Hopefully, you see now that the View is pretty dumb, decoupled, easier to maintain and to test.

Behind the scenes

You might think that you don’t need a third party library to do that. Indeed, this is true for simple use cases where you know that lists are chronological ordered and items from the new list will be always added on top (or at the end) of the old list. In that case you simply would write diff = newList - oldList and then call adapter.notifyItemRangeInserted(0, diff.size()), right? Also in this use case you could use this library simply to not write command classes and command processor again by yourself. But what if you implement such a newspaper app as described above and a news item’s title that already was in the old list has been changed compared to the new list, so that adapter.notifyItemChanged(position) must be called? Or what if lists are not always sorted the same way? What if an item has been removed?

In that case DiffCommandsCalculator is the drop in solution. But how does it actually works? Let’s compare two lists:

  oldList     newList
    A           A
    B           B
    C           B2
    D           C
    E           F
    F           G
    G           E

We have inserted B2, removed D and moved E and inserted H at the end of the list. Let’s compute the difference:

> B2   2
 < D   3
 < E   4  
 > E   6  
 > H   7

The first column indicates whether it was an insertion > or a deletion <. The second column is the affected item and the last column is the index of the list item (beginning by zero). This schema seems familiar, doesn’t it? You see something like this almost everyday if you use git and diff (command line tool, GUIs also available) to detect and resolve merge conflicts. DiffCommandsCalculator implements the same algorithm as diff. This kind of problem is called longest common subsequence problem. On arbitrary number of input data solving this problem is NP-hard. Fortunately, we have fixed size of list and items count. Therefore, we can implement an algorithm that uses the concept of dynamic programming that solves this problem in polynomial time O(n*m) (where n is the number of elements in oldList and m the number of elements in newList). That sounds really theoretically, right? Actually, it is easier to implement than you might think. I found this youtube video helpful.


This little library called AdapterCommands is available on maven central and the source code can be found on Github. This library is the little brother of AdapterDelegates (favor composition over inheritance) and helps you to animate dataset changes (if you don’t have stable ids) in your RecyclerView by implementing the command pattern. The main difference between this library and adapter.setHasStableId(true) is that the later one relies on unique and stable ids for each item in the dataset, whereas AdapterCommands uses java’s equals() method for each item to determine dataset changes. Moreover, this works quite nice with MVP and PresentationModel as shown here in this blog post. Keep in mind that the runtime of comparing each element of oldList with newList is **O(n*m) and therefore you should consider run DiffCommandsCalculator on a background thread** if you have many items in your dataset. RxJava offers a nice threading model and plays very nice into MVP and presentation model as shown above and is therefore my recommendation of how to connect all the things together.

N.B. In Artem Zinnatullin’s podcast “The Context” I have said that I don’t do a lot of functional UI testing, because I don’t see the need to do so. My argument was that I implement my apps according MVP and my Views are pretty dumb, so there can’t go much wrong in View layer. Using AdapterCommands emphasizes this thesis because I do test my Presenters and PresentationModel. Furthermore, since the AdapterCommands library itself is already tested I can relay on that and have one less test to write in my app. However, that doesn’t mean that you should not write functional UI Tests! I would write functional UI Tests (i.e. with Espresso) if compiling and executing this tests wouldn’t take minutes. It wouldn’t hurt to test the view layer too, even if the View is dumb and there can’t go much wrong. I believe in TDD. However, when a test takes more than 10 seconds to execute, the whole TDD workflow and productivity gets destroyed. Hence I ensure that from Presenter downwards everything is tested and that the dumb View gets an optimized presentation model so that there can’t go much wrong.